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Lans behind OpenVPN

here is an example of how to have multiple lans behind OpenVPN from ##OpenVPN on freenode.

Our user had a openvpn server with a lan ( behind it, and 2 client with lans behind them:

client1 with lan
client2 with lan

He wanted machines on all 3 lans to be able to communicate using a tun (routed) setup.

Every machine with a LAN behind it must have IP forwarding enabled. In this example that means the server, and client1/client2.
The user needed the following in his server.conf:

push "route"
push "route"
push "route"

The route entries adjust the local routing table, telling it to route those networks over the vpn.
The push routes are added on the clients connecting, telling them to route those networks over the vpn.

You may realize that client1 should not route traffic over the vpn, and that client2 should not route traffic over the vpn (because those networks are local to each client). Because of the iroute entries you will see below, openvpn knows this too and skips the push for the client.

The route entries are telling his server to add a route for each of, and to its kernel's routing table, and both will be routed to the tunnel interface and to openvpn. How will openvpn know what client to send each network to?
The answer is iroute!

Iroute does not bypass or alter the kernel's routing table, it allows openvpn to know it should handle the routing when the kernel points to it but the network is not one that openvpn knows about. The iroute entry tells the openvpn server which client is responsible for the network. Without the iroute entry you will find the following in your logfiles:

MULTI: bad source address from client [IP ADDRESS], packet dropped

IP ADDRESS in that case would be the machine on client LAN which tried to talk through vpn, because openVPN has no clue what that address is. Once you give it the iroute statement, that changes. Iroute is a route internal to openVPN, and has nothing to do with the kernel's routing table. It tells openvpn which client owns which network. Note that even if you only have 1 lan behind 1 client, YOU STILL NEED IROUTE. You will need it any time a clients source IP address is different from the IP given to it by the vpn server.

The thing is, we cant just drop the iroute into server.conf because it would then be used for every client, and iroute is only to tell the server at which client it should send traffic destined for a network that the kernel said should go to the openvpn interface. That is why we add the iroute commands to a ccd entry.

You will need client-config-dir /path/to/ccd/ in your server config file to enable ccd entries. ccd entries are basically included into server.conf, but only for the specified client. You put commands in ccd/client-common-name, and they are only included when the client's common-name matches the name of the file in ccd/.

In this example lets assume the client owning the network has a common-name of client1. In ccd/client1 He should have the following:


As you can see our user will make a ccd/ entry for each client with a lan behind it. The ccd entry will have an iroute command for the network behind the client.

That means that client2 on the LAN would have the following entry for its ccd/client2 file:


Ovpn routing.jpg


If you are not running openvpn on the router for each lan, you have some more routes to add.
This diagram explains it pretty well.

Lets say our server is on its lan, and uses as its default route, and you want the lan to be accessible or able to access over the vpn. would need a route for every network that will access or be accessed by. That means in our example: must know that for 10.10.1.x 10.10.3.x and the vpn internal network (for example, 10.8.0.x), it sends the traffic to
This is true for any number of lans you want to connect, whether server or client.

If you fail to add this route, here is what would happen if a VPN client (for example, wanted to send traffic to
1) The vpn client sends traffic to, with a source address of
2) The vpn server ( and receives the traffic, has IP forwarding enabled, and passes the traffic to
3) gets it and tries to respond to but has no entry in its routing table
4) Because has no route for, it sends the traffic to its default gateway which is
5) checks its routing table, has no route for, and sends the traffic to its default gateway which is likely its ISP
6) The ISP ignores it, because it is a RFC 1918 ip (aka lan only)

the annoying work-around would be to add the route to every box on the LAN, in which case step 3 above would work.

If this needs clarification ask me about it and I will update this page after discovering how to make it clearer.

On Jan26, 2010 I changed this article to no longer use and for my subnets. I did this because it is important for people to not use common subnets such as 192.168.1/0.x when pushing routes to clients. It does not matter if you know where every client connects from, but once you add a single road warrior to the VPN you will run in to a problem. If the road warrior is connecting from a LAN where he has 192.168.0.X and he gets pushed a route to to flow over the vpn, he will lose all connectivity to the internet until he kills the vpn. This is because the client loses his route to his gateway... he tries to contact the gateway over the VPN, but he has no route to the VPN because he needs to access his gateway to reach it. In short, if your lan that you want to access using openvpn uses a common subnet such as 192.168.0.x or 192.168.1.x, CHANGE IT.


  • There is an issue with some Windows and a broken API when running less than OpenVPN 2.1.

Basically if you see an error like this:

route ADD MASK
ROUTE: route addition failed using CreateIpForwardEntry: One or more arguments are not correct.
Route addition via IPAPI failed

One solution is to run the latest 2.1 client package.
And an easier solution is to use add this to your config:

route-method exe

The first option changes how windows adds a route
The second option waits to add the route (helpful for making sure you get a DHCP lease before messing with routes)
If those dont help, try turning off routing and remote acess in administrative tools - routing and remote access

Written by krzee @ #OpenVPN @ freenode IRC

Feel free to discuss this document on the unofficial OpenVPN forum at: OpenVPN Forum: Lans behind OpenVPN