Difference between revisions of "FreeBSD/LiveCD"

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This document will describe how to get a rudimentary Live CD built on your own system from a working/running FreeBSD install.
 
This document will describe how to get a rudimentary Live CD built on your own system from a working/running FreeBSD install.
  
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Building world and kernel for a live CD is no different than building it for a running system.  During the install process, we want to specify a new location, which will be our live CD.  You do this with the DESTDIR variable, given to make.
 
Building world and kernel for a live CD is no different than building it for a running system.  During the install process, we want to specify a new location, which will be our live CD.  You do this with the DESTDIR variable, given to make.
  
&lt;pre># cd /usr/src
+
<pre># cd /usr/src
 
# make buildworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make buildworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make installworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make installworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
# make distribution DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd&lt;/pre>
+
# make distribution DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd</pre>
  
 
If you're building a 64-bit live CD on a 32-bit box, or something else, add TARGET_ARCH and TARGET variables to your build/install.  Here's an example of a 32-bit build being done on a 64-bit system:
 
If you're building a 64-bit live CD on a 32-bit box, or something else, add TARGET_ARCH and TARGET variables to your build/install.  Here's an example of a 32-bit build being done on a 64-bit system:
&lt;pre># make buildworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
+
<pre># make buildworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make installworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make installworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make distribution TARGET_ARCH=i368 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
 
# make distribution TARGET_ARCH=i368 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
&lt;/pre>
+
</pre>
  
  
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Setup a working devfs in your chroot:
 
Setup a working devfs in your chroot:
&lt;pre># mount -t devfs devfs /path/to/livecd/dev
+
<pre># mount -t devfs devfs /path/to/livecd/dev
# chroot /path/to/livecd&lt;/pre>
+
# chroot /path/to/livecd</pre>
  
 
As above, if you're cross-compiling, you need to set a couple environment variables.  Once inside your chroot, set the following environment variables:
 
As above, if you're cross-compiling, you need to set a couple environment variables.  Once inside your chroot, set the following environment variables:
&lt;pre>MACHINE i386
+
<pre>MACHINE i386
 
UNAME_p
 
UNAME_p
UNAME_m&lt;/pre>
+
UNAME_m</pre>
  
 
You should now be able to pkg_add or build any ports you need for your live CD.  In our example, we're using this live CD to restore backups via rsync from a remote server.
 
You should now be able to pkg_add or build any ports you need for your live CD.  In our example, we're using this live CD to restore backups via rsync from a remote server.
Line 50: Line 42:
 
== Nitty-Gritty ==
 
== Nitty-Gritty ==
 
=== /etc/fstab ===
 
=== /etc/fstab ===
&lt;pre>md /mnt mfs rw,-s32m,-S 2 0
+
<pre>md /mnt mfs rw,-s32m,-S 2 0
/mnt /etc    unionfs rw              0      0&lt;/pre>
+
/mnt /etc    unionfs rw              0      0</pre>
  
 
=== /usr/local/etc/rc.d/network.sh ===
 
=== /usr/local/etc/rc.d/network.sh ===
&lt;pre>#!/bin/sh
+
<pre>#!/bin/sh
  
 
echo "Configuring network interfaces for DHCP..."
 
echo "Configuring network interfaces for DHCP..."
 
echo ""
 
echo ""
ifconfig | grep flags | cut -f 1 -d : | grep -vE 'carp|lo|bridge|tun|tap' | xargs -L 1 -I III dhclient III&lt;/pre>
+
ifconfig | grep flags | cut -f 1 -d : | grep -vE 'carp|lo|bridge|tun|tap' | xargs -L 1 -I III dhclient III</pre>
  
 
=== /etc/rc.conf ===
 
=== /etc/rc.conf ===
&lt;pre>## LiveCD Options
+
<pre>## LiveCD Options
 
update_motd="NO"
 
update_motd="NO"
 
syslogd_enable="NO"
 
syslogd_enable="NO"
Line 81: Line 73:
  
 
## LiveCD Daemons
 
## LiveCD Daemons
sshd_enable="YES"&lt;/pre>
+
sshd_enable="YES"</pre>
  
 
== Create ISO ==
 
== Create ISO ==
 
Once the image is built, we create an ISO using mkisofs, which can be had from /usr/ports/sysutils/cdrtools.  The following command will create an ISO with the proper options:
 
Once the image is built, we create an ISO using mkisofs, which can be had from /usr/ports/sysutils/cdrtools.  The following command will create an ISO with the proper options:
&lt;pre># mkisofs -no-emul -r -b boot/cdboot -J -V FreeBSD-LiveCD -o /home/ecrist/clx.iso /path/to/livecd/&lt;/pre>
+
<pre># mkisofs -no-emul -r -b boot/cdboot -J -V FreeBSD-LiveCD -o /home/ecrist/clx.iso /path/to/livecd/</pre>
  
 
== Test ==
 
== Test ==

Revision as of 16:36, 26 November 2010

This document will describe how to get a rudimentary Live CD built on your own system from a working/running FreeBSD install.

Getting Started

To begin, start by building world and the proper kernel for your live CD. You can build a live CD on a 64-bit box for 32-bit fairly easily. The process is described briefly here.

Building world and kernel for a live CD is no different than building it for a running system. During the install process, we want to specify a new location, which will be our live CD. You do this with the DESTDIR variable, given to make.

# cd /usr/src
# make buildworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
# make installworld DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
# make distribution DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd

If you're building a 64-bit live CD on a 32-bit box, or something else, add TARGET_ARCH and TARGET variables to your build/install. Here's an example of a 32-bit build being done on a 64-bit system:

# make buildworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
# make installworld TARGET_ARCH=i386 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd
# make distribution TARGET_ARCH=i368 TARGET=i386 DESTDIR=/path/to/livecd


Configuration / Installing Packages

Once these operations are complete, you will have a 'working' system in /path/to/livecd (make sure the directory exists before putting files there!) Now, you can chroot to this directory and install a ports tree, add packages, etc. Again, if you're building a 32-bit live CD on a 64-bit system, or something similar, you need to do a couple things first.

Setup a working devfs in your chroot:

# mount -t devfs devfs /path/to/livecd/dev
# chroot /path/to/livecd

As above, if you're cross-compiling, you need to set a couple environment variables. Once inside your chroot, set the following environment variables:

MACHINE i386
UNAME_p
UNAME_m

You should now be able to pkg_add or build any ports you need for your live CD. In our example, we're using this live CD to restore backups via rsync from a remote server.

The following tasks were completed for our example:

  1. Install rsync (pkg_add -rv rsync)
  2. run /etc/rc.d/sshd onestart to create ssh host keys (so they're static on our live cd)
  3. set a password for the root user
  4. enabled root ssh in sshd_config
  5. added a script to /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ to search for and run dhclient on all interfaces
  6. create a memory disk and union mount it over /etc so resolv.conf can be written by dhclient.

Nitty-Gritty

/etc/fstab

md	/mnt	mfs	rw,-s32m,-S	2	0	
/mnt	/etc    unionfs	rw              0       0

/usr/local/etc/rc.d/network.sh

#!/bin/sh

echo "Configuring network interfaces for DHCP..."
echo ""
ifconfig | grep flags | cut -f 1 -d : | grep -vE 'carp|lo|bridge|tun|tap' | xargs -L 1 -I III dhclient III

/etc/rc.conf

## LiveCD Options
update_motd="NO"
syslogd_enable="NO"
sendmail_enable="NONE"
cleanvar_enable="NO"
hostid_enable="NO"
ip6addrctl_enable="NO"
moused_nondefault_enable="NO"
sendmail_submit_enable="NO"
sendmail_outbound_enable="NO"
sendmail_msp_queue_enable="NO"
cron_enable="NO"
crashinfo_enable="NO"
virecover_enable="NO"
newsyslog_enable="NO"
mixer_enable="NO"
root_rw_mount="NO"
hostname="CLX_LIVECD"

## LiveCD Daemons
sshd_enable="YES"

Create ISO

Once the image is built, we create an ISO using mkisofs, which can be had from /usr/ports/sysutils/cdrtools. The following command will create an ISO with the proper options:

# mkisofs -no-emul -r -b boot/cdboot -J -V FreeBSD-LiveCD -o /home/ecrist/clx.iso /path/to/livecd/

Test

I test my ISOs using VirtualBox. You're also welcome to burn them to a CD-R/W and try booting from it.

Paring Down

If you need a smaller ISO than the one we have here (about 440MB), you can remove the following things from your /path/to/livecd:

  • /usr/ports
  • /var/db/portsnap

Resources

Links

Man Pages

  • mdmfs

Thanks

  • Josh Paetzel (most of this article)